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留学生Essay 需求:Different theory of leadership

Different approaches

Custom Thesis Writingin different cultures
Introduction:
Leadership theories
Different cultures in the world
Hofstede’s framework

Italian theory of leadership: Machiavelli described certain effective techniques for manipulation and remaining in power.
American leadership theories:
Douglas McGregor (Theory X versus Theory Y),
Rensis Likert (System 4 management)
Robert R. Blake with Jane S. Mouton (the Managerial Grid)
What these theories have in common is that they all advocate participation in the manager's decisions by his/her subordinates.
Fred Fiedler's contingency theory of leadership Fiedler suggests that different leader personalities are needed for "difficult" and "easy" situations, and that a cultural gap between superior and subordinates is one of the factors that make a situation "difficult." However, this theory does not address the kind of cultural gap in question.
Geert Hofstede’s research model:
National culture can be described by Power Distance, Uncertainty Avoidance, Individualism-Collectivism, and Masculinity-Femininity.
Power Distance measures the inequality of power distribution.
Uncertainty Avoidance shows the

Custom Thesis Writingextent to which the society can tolerate uncertain situations and tries to avoid them.
Individualism-Collectivism indicates the relationships between people and their family members.
Masculinity-Femininity dimension measures the extent to which the dominant social values are labeled masculinity or femininity.
Different cultures in the world
Now use the Hofstede’s four dimensions to describe the different cultures:
Choose France USA Sweden Italy German-----Japan Taiwan Hong Kong Inida to analyze
1. Large Power Distance/Weak Uncertainty Avoidance: Hong Kong /India
Large Power Distance/Strong Uncertainty Avoidance: France /Italy /Japan /Taiwan
Small Power Distance/Weak Uncertainty Avoidance: USA /Sweden
Small Power Distance/Strong Uncertainty Avoidance: German
2. Large Power Distance/Collectivist: German/Taiwan/India /Hong Kong/Japan
Large Power Distance/ Individualist: France/Italy



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