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留学生论文网-芬兰留学生Leadership Essay-应对多元文化项目:项目经理的领导风格的芬兰语-

留学生论文网提供芬兰留学生Leadership Essay定制。Coping with multicultural projects: the leadership styles of Finnish project managers
Marko M€akilouko *
Tampere Polytechnic, P.O. Box 21, Teiskontie 33, Tampere 33521, Finland
Received 7 February 2003; received in revised form 6 May 2003; accepted 21 August 2003
Abstract
Finnish leaders and key personnel of multicultural projects were interviewed about their experiences and perspectives on multiculturalproject leadership. The team members included Finnish–Chinese, Finnish–European, and Finnish–American culturalcombinations. The Chinese team members were mostly from Hong Kong with one team from Beijing. Three multicultural projectleadership styles were found. Forty out of forty-seven project leaders indicated a solely task oriented leadership style. The sameleaders also indicated cultural blindness, ethnocentrism, parochialism, or in-group favoritism. The seven leaders that indicatedalmost solely relationships orientation, or both task and relationships orientation, indicated also cultural sympathy and threeleadership strategies to maintain team cohesion and to avoid cross-cultural problems. It is possible that they understand foreigncultures as a social phenomenon and can use that knowledge in leadership. Obviously, the relationships and task orientation arepersonality traits that have wide consequences for multicultural project management and the choice of leadership style as well as theforeign cultures..

Keywords: Multicultural; Leadership style; Task orientation; Relationships orientation; Cultural blindness; Ethnocentrism

1. Introduction
Multicultural project teams are common in large internationalcompanies. Recent mergers in Scandinaviahave further increased the number of multiculturalproject teams in operation in Finnish industry. In
practice, there are three basic forms of multiculturalteam. (1) A project team with members from different
cultural backgrounds working in the same country.These teams have expatriate team members or teammembers that come from ethnic minorities that aredistinct. (2) Project teams that are partially ortotally dispersed in many countries but meet face-toface.(3) Project teams that have members based in manycountries, work together only through electronic medias,and have never met each other. This ‘‘virtual projectteam’’ has no face-to-face or get-to-know-each-othermeetings [1].
This study concentrates only on the second type ofteam. The appointed leaders of the project teams areoften from the companys home country. Some of theleaders move abroad as expatriates, but it is morecommon for them to remain in their home country andcommunicate via electronic media. Without exception,the project teams have frequent face-to-face meetingswhere personal relationships between team membersdevelop. The benefits of strong personal relationshipsinclude improved communication and reduced conflicts.



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