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Essay Outline:essay目录、论文提纲

essay outlineessay提纲

先看几个essay目录范例:

Outline[*1]

Thesis:[*2] Because the polygraph has been proved reliable, even under the most controlled[*3] conditions, its use by private employers should be banned.[*4]

I. Introduction[*5]
II. Several Kinds of Cultural Difference that People May Come Across[*6] in advertisement Translation[*7]
III. The Advertisement Translation from the Aspect of Cross-Cultural Communication
A.[*8] The basic principle of advertising translation
B. Ways of advertising translation towards kinds of cross-cultural communication.
1. [*9]Literal translation
2. Free translation
3. Borrowing
4. Rhetoric
5. Cultural Transfer
IV. Conclusion

用A4纸打印,每页页边距:上、下页边距均为2.54厘米;左、右页边距均为2.5厘米。


页面下端居中打印页码,用小写罗马数字标i。

论文格式文件2
   
Abstract[*1]

Ethics is [*2]endowed with power and life through expressing the spirit of times. In this materialized world, traditional ethical instructions do not conform to the existent reality in the circumstances where a new communication situation, new contents of living and new existing modes of life are emerging. Due to this, exploring more adaptable moral principles becomes a[*3] needed task in the context of the prosperity of […] human beings to go out of sexual confusion, fulfilling their literary mission and becoming literary canon.[*4]

Key words:[*5] cross-cultural communication   cu[*6]ltural difference   advertisement translation

 

英、汉语内容提要只能分别写一页

以下的内容提要有问题
With the development of …world economy. This paper[*7] is to analyze the influence of cross-cultural communication … in the target country.

页面下端居中打印页码,用小写罗马数字标ii。

 
内容提要[*8]

随着[*9]我国经济的迅速发展,广告翻译对于推动我国企业在经济全球化环境下开拓国际市场具有重要而深远的意义。在广告的翻译过程中会遇到很多种的跨文化现象,在这些差异中,宗教信仰,风俗习惯,历史背景,价值 [……] 运用各种翻译技巧去体现深层次的文化内涵。[*10]

关键词:[*11]跨文化交际  文[*12]化差异  广告翻译

 论文格式文件3
 共空4行
[*1]I. Introduction[*2]
With the [*3]development ….
“ Advertisement”, means advertising and propaganda, namely, the activity that announces something to the public far and wild. American Marketing Association (AMA) defines advertisement as “the non-personal communication of information usually paid for and usually persuasive in nature about products, service or ideas by identified sponsors through the various media” (Zhao 10).[*4]
Adv


ertising is[*5] something that we are all exposed to. It is also something that is likely to affect most of us in a number of different spheres of our lives. Advertising takes many forms, but in most of them language is of crucial importance. […] but more often, and more importantly, to persuade and influence. Advertising, moreover, not only influences any human society in which it is widespread but also reflects certain aspect of society’s values and that society’s structure.(Torben and Kim 33)[*6]
Nowadays, advertisement plays a very important role in people’s daily life. When people turn on the TV and watch the programs they like, they may watch lots …
III. Advertisement Translation in the[*7] …
Advertisement is, a kind of persuasive and comprehensive artistic language that combined with literature, aesthetics, psychology, marketing sales, and rhetoric. It is not only important to respect the factors […] As Professor Jian Fangrui says, “后来主要问题逐渐成了如何巧妙的对付媒体 (more[*8] and more the chief problem is the tactful management of mass media—translated by this author)” (Jian 39).
A. The basic pri[*9]nciple of …
Famous translating theorist …
B. Different ways of advertisement translation
Cultural differences make the advertisement translation difficult and challenging. The quality of the translated text determines whether the product information …
1. Literal t[*10]ranslation
Literal Translation means that when conveying the meaning of original…


几个要注意的问题:
1. 首页开始要打页码,从阿拉伯数字1开始排列,下端、居中
2. 英文打印状态,每一个标点后空一个格。
3. 如果句子以一个整句引文开头,原句后的句号应根据具体情况改成其他恰当标点符号,如:
“He collects a winter store of bright summer moments,[*11]” wrote George Brandes about Wordsworth’s Way of writing poetry.
如果原句以问号、感叹号收尾,引用时应保留原来的标点符号,并将其放在引号内,如:
“What did the President know and when did he know it?” became the great question of the Watergate hearings (40).


论文格式文件3
  共空4行
[*1]I. Introduction[*2]
With the [*3]development ….
“Advertisement”, means advertising and propaganda, namely, the activity that announces something to the public far and wild. American Marketing Association (AMA) defines advertisement as “the non-personal communication of information usually paid for and usually persuasive in nature about products, service or ideas by identified sponsors through the various media” (Zhao 10).[*4]
Advertising is[*5] something that we are all exposed to. It is also something that is likely to affect most of us in a number of different spheres of our lives. Advertising takes many forms, but in most of them language is of crucial importance. […] but more often, and more importantly, to persuade and influence. Advertising, moreover, not only influences any human society in which it is widespread but also reflects certain aspect of society’s values and that society’s structure.(Torben and Kim 33)[*6]
Nowadays, advertisement plays a very important role in people’s daily life. When people turn on the TV and watch the programs they like, they may watch lots …
III. Advertisement Translation in the[*7] …
Advertisement is, a kind of persuasive and comprehensive artistic language that combined with literature, aesthetics, psychology, marketing sales, and rhetoric. It is not only important to respect the factors […] As Professor Jian Fangrui says, “后来主要问题逐渐成了如何巧妙的对付媒体 (more[*8] and more the chief problem is the tactful management of mass media—translated by this author)” (Jian 39).
A. The bas


ic pri[*9]nciple of …
Famous translating theorist …
B. Different ways of advertisement translation
Cultural differences make the advertisement translation difficult and challenging. The quality of the translated text determines whether the product information …
1. Literal t[*10]ranslation
Literal Translation means that when conveying the meaning of original…


几个要注意的问题:
1. 首页开始要打页码,从阿拉伯数字1开始排列,下端、居中
2. 英文打印状态,每一个标点后空一个格。
3. 如果句子以一个整句引文开头,原句后的句号应根据具体情况改成其他恰当标点符号,如:
“He collects a winter store of bright summer moments,[*11]” wrote George Brandes about Wordsworth’s Way of writing poetry.
如果原句以问号、感叹号收尾,引用时应保留原来的标点符号,并将其放在引号内,如:
“What did the President know and when did he know it?” became the great question of the Watergate hearings (40).

论文格式文件5
  Acknowledgements[*1]

In the course [*2]of writing this thesis, I received a magnificent amount of help and support, and I would like to take the opportunity to express my gratitude to all who have given me …

页码置于下方,居中,承续上一页引用文献后的阿拉伯数字。


 其实这里的论文提纲,也可以理解为广义上的论文写作提纲,包括整个论文创作过程所需要注意的写作构成。下面具体讲解。

 

一、论文各要素构成

第一、构成项目

  毕业论文包括以下内容:

  封面、内容提要与关键词、目录、正文、注释、附录、参考文献。其中“附录”视具体情况安排,其余为必备项目。如果需要,可以在正文前加“引言”,在参考文献后加“后记”。

  第二、各项目含义

  (1)封面

  封面由文头、论文标题、作者、学校名称、专业、年级、指导教师、日期等项内容组成。

  (2)内容提要与关键词

  内容提要是论文内容的概括性描述,应忠实于原文,字数控制在300字以内。关键词是从论文标题、内容提要或正文中提取的、能表现论文主题的、具有实质意义的词语,通常不超过7个。

  (3)目录

  列出论文正文的一二级标题名称及对应页码,附录、参考文献、后记等对应的页码。

一、留学生论文主要类别:
为了探讨和掌握论文的写作规律和特点,需要对论文进行分类。由于论文本身的内容和性质不同,研究领域、对象、方法、表现方式不同,因此,论文就有不同的分类方法。
燕子期刊网提示按内容性质和研究方法的不同可以把论文分为理论性论文、实验性论文、描述性论文和设计性论文。
另外还有一种综合型的分类方法,即把论文分为专题型、论辩型、综述型和综合型四大类:
1.专题型论文。
这是分析前人研究成果的基础上,以直接论述的形式发表见解,从正面提出某学科中某一学术问题的一种论文。
2.论辩型论文。
这是针对他人在某学科中某一学术问题的见解,凭借充分的论据,着重揭露其不足或错误之处,通过论辩形式来发表见解的一种论文。
3.综述型论文。
这是在归纳、总结前人或今人对某学科中某一学术问题已有研究成果的基础上,加以介绍或评论,从而发表自己见解的一种论文。
4.综合型论文。
这是一种将综述型和论辩型两种形式有机结合起来写成的一种论文。
简单分类:
论文
a thesis; a dissertation; an essay; a paper
毕业论文
a graduation dissertation; a graduation thesis
博士论文
a doctoral dissertation
论文摘要
an abstract of a article; a synopsis of a thesis
论文答辩
(thesis) oral defense
学期论文
a term paper
学术论文
a thesis; a dissertation; a research paper; a scientific paper
专题论文
a monograph; a disquisition
专题论文集  a symposium

归纳为:(essay 小论文,随笔,
assignment课堂作业(上完一章节留下的作业).
Coursework 课程作业 ,
thesis proposal, 研究建议,课题建议
term paper 学年作业,
research paper小的研究论文,
book report读书报告
dissertation (博士学位论文,大论文,专题论文
))
 

二、留学生ESSAY格式

Reference Harvard格式
(http://ukthesiss.com/Thesis_Tips/Reference/Literature_Review/)

RGU: LIBRARY
Contents
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
When to cite? . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
What should a reference citation look like within my text? . . . . . . 3
Reference citations for specific materials
A book by a single author / group of authors who have



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