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refence的要求格式

Effective

Learning Service

References and

Bibliographies

References and Bibliographies

A M E M B E R O F

University of Bradford, School of Management References and Bibliographies

Effective Learning Service 1

Academic writing is special in an age of rapid communication. Most assignments in

higher education require you to slow the tempo and carefully explore and test out

ideas, either for their own sake or in relation to real or hypothetical situations.

This requires you to, not just present and describe ideas, but to be aware of

where they came from, who developed them - and why. Ideas, theories, models,

practices are often shaped by the social norms, values and practices prevailing at

the time and place of their origin and the student in higher education needs to be

aware of these influences. Referencing plays a role, therefore, in helping to locate

and place ideas and arguments in their historical, social, cultural and geographical

contexts.

Referencing can also help you to find your own voice in assignments, by helping

you construct essays and reports that project the way you see or perceive things,

but supported by a body of evidence that strengthens your opinions - and

converts them into arguments.

Education needs ideas, arguments and perspectives to thrive, but these have to

be tested rigorously and subjected to the critical scrutiny of others. This is done

by researching, preparing and presenting work into the public domain; a

formidable task for any writer or commentator, and one that can take years

sometimes to achieve.

Referencing is then, also about respecting and honouring the hard work of writers

and commentators . by acknowledging them in your assignments.

Colin Neville

Effective Learning Service

PREFACE

The Effective Learning Service at the School of Management is part of a UK

government funded LearnHigher project, which involves collaboration between

16 UK institutions of higher education.

The aim is to develop a resources network to enable students to gain access to

high quality learning support material produced by UK universities.

The Effective Learning Service at the School of Management has been selected to

develop resources on referencing to share with students. A website on

referencing is currently being developed, and a book on this topic: The Complete

Guide to Referencing and Avoiding Plagiarism, by Colin Neville, is due to be

launched by The Open University Press in August 2007.

More information can be found on the LearnHigher project at:

www.learnhigher.ac.uk

University of Bradford, School of Management References and Bibliographies

Effective Learning Service 2

REFERENCES and BIBLIOGRAPHIES

It is an expected academic practice that students will refer to (or cite) the



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