Handbook Abstract Proposal Literature Review 留学生论文翻译 Annotated Bibliographies Methodology 留学生论文润色 出国留学论文Reference


Directorate of Learning Resources
Before using this guide, please check if your School specifies the use of a particular referencing格式system, and, if so, whether it provides its own guidelines to the scheme (e.g.in a course handbook). Note that some Schools may expect both a list of (cited)references and a (general) bibliography, rather than the single bibliography which isrecommended in this guide.
Citing your references correctly is an essential part of your academic work for three main
• to acknowledge the sources you have used as the basis of your research. Failure to do thiscould be construed as plagiarism. For further details on plagiarism see
• to enable other people to identify and trace your sources quickly and easily
• to support facts and claims you have made in your text.Citing acknowledging within your piece of work the source from which you
obtained information.Reference full details of the source from which you obtained your information.
Bibliography a list of the references you have used, usually placed at the end of your text.
1. Citing references in the body of the text
NB For citing electronic resources, please refer to Section 3.When reference is made in the text to a particular document, the author (or editor, compiler ortranslator) (individual or organisation) and year of publication are inserted in brackets:eg Agriculture still employs half a million people in rural Britain (Shucksmith, 2000).
If the author’s name occurs naturally in the sentence, only the year of publication is given:eg This concept is discussed by Jones (1998) …
When referring to more than one document by an author published in the same year, these aredistinguished by adding lower case letters (a,b,c) after the year:
eg (Watson, 1999a)If there are 2 authors, the names of both should be given:
eg (Lines and Walker, 1997)Where there are more than 2 authors, cite the first author, followed by ‘et al’ (in italics)
eg (Morgan et al., 1998)If the author is unascertainable, cite (a shortened) title:
eg (Burden of anonymity, 1948)
Citing your references
using the Harvard (Author-
Date) system
Guide 2Page numbers should be included when there is a need to be more specific, for example whenmaking a direct quotation:
eg As Kelvin stated (1968, p.100) ‘the value of…’If referencing a secondary source (a document which you have not seen but which is quoted in oneof your references) the two items must be linked with the term ‘cited in’:eg …economic development (Jones, 2000) cited in Walker (2001).
NB (1) Whenever possible, try to read the original source;
(2) some guides to Harvard advise that you can only cite the secondary source -

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