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Literature Review
Deception has permeated into every corner of life. It exists not only in daily communication, but also in the dialogues in some literary works. This thesis aims to analyze the pragmatic effects and strategies of deception in Three Kingdoms. On the one hand, the analysis of deception enables us to have a better understanding of the implied meanings and the artistic charm of the classic works. On the other hand, the analysis of deception in literary works can also deepen our understanding of relevant linguistic theories.
Deception is defined differently by different scholars. Some scholars such as Krauss,Coleman,Kay respectively give their definitions to deception. But they confuse deception with lying. Then Galasinski gives us an authoritative definition of deception. He considers deception as “a communicative act that is intended to introduce in the addressee a particular belief, by manipulating the truth and falsity of information.” In this thesis the author adopts the definition of deception as “a successful or unsuccessful deliberate attempt, without forewarning to create in another belief, which the communicator considers to be untrue.”

As the definition of deception implied, we find that deception is a deliberate attempt made by people, hoping to achieve some purpose. That is to say deception is frequently employed as a pragmatic strategy to achieve some pragmatic effects and has good effects on smooth and fluent interaction.
Being able to make good use of different communicative strategies is part of one’s communicative competence or pragmatic strategy. Communicative or pragmatic strategy is a term often used in pragmatics, referring to interactional participants’ solutions to multiple conflicting goals. Deception here is regarded as a communicative or pragmatic strategy.
Because deception is “embedded in our daily life, it is not always easy to recognize. Deception takes a variety of forms and can be divided into different kinds according to different categories.

Many scholars have put forward their classification of deception. Anolli describes three types of deception: “concealment, falsification and distortion”.
Besides, many scholars have made great effort to explore deception in different fields.
The explosion of deception literature traced its back to the medieval period and during the 1980s and 1990s the explosion of deception developed quickly which was caused by growing awareness of the scholars. And scholars home and abroad have explored deception from different perspectives. Generally speaking, they view this phenomenon in the ensuing ways: the study of deception from ethnical field; the study of deception from psychological standpoint; the study of deception from the developmental psychological stance; the study of deception from logical angle; and the study of deception from linguistic perspective. Furthermore, great achievements have been made by the above studies. However, there still exist some gaps ignored by the studies.

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