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Literature Review格式样本-怎么写好完美的文献综述?文献综述写作范文参考

Literature Review:Literature Review格式样本-怎么写好完美的文献综述?.文献综述写作范文参考

2.1 Introduction of literature review
This chapter reviews relevant literatures. First it reviews the researches related to Mary Kay's marketing strategy, the second part reviews relevant investigations on direct selling and the status quo of China's direct selling, the third part reviews the relation between Chinese culture and direct selling; the fourth part reviews studies in the role of Chinese women; the followed part reviews researches on China's cosmetics market and multinational cosmetics corporations in China, the last is a summary of the meaning and innovations of this chapter.

2.2 Researches on Mary Kay’s marketing strategy
Mary Kay's success has attracted some scholars’ research; Ash (1995:67) claimed that Mary Kay's success is because the choice of marketing strategies is suitable for itself: direct selling. The continuous refinement of direct selling within 45 years enables the marketing bring direct benefits to Mary Kay.
In addition, at the beginning when Mary Kay was founded, Ash took enriching women's lives as her responsibility and committed to creating a ‘business shared by global women’. Since Mary Kay opened the door for women to get unprecedented opportunities for financial independence, career advancement and personal fulfillment (Mary Kay, 2009), the U.S. ‘Fortune’ magazine (Yao, Q., 2007: 117) listed it as one of ten companies which are more suitable for women to work there, and it is the only cosmetics company in this list. Because of this, the International Women's Forum praised Mary Kay Inc in recognition of their special contribution on enhancing the status of women's equality (Yin Xiaoli, 2007:145). Ash (1995:46) thought that the corporate culture of Mary Kay was also an effective marketing tool, because the company was committed to provide women with more opportunities for self-realization, it also indirectly enhanced the female consumers’ impression of this company, which enabled more women consumers pay more attention to this company so as to accept their products, it is also the key factor for Mary Kay to achieve a success.

2.3 Direct selling and its status quo in China
Direct selling was originated in the United States, it was founded by Jewish Kasa Bei; it first began in 1940s and has been developed rapidly with the rising of information society and people's psychology of preferring to convenient shopping (Albaum, Gerald, 1992:45-107). Now, direct selling has covered almost all countries with mature and developed market economy all over the world. Moreover, the world's total turnover of direct selling is 1,140 billion U.S. dollars in 2008. Some scholars (Mason, et al, 1993: 213) figured that direct selling adapts to the requirements of fast-changing market. It completely differ from the traditional marketing channels which rely on multi-level marketing and take interests as link, it abandons the original fixed-store-type sales model and through advanced technical means to identify potential customers, selling products for specific customers (Raymond, et al, 1994: 34-67). The sales level of direct selling is very short, but its width is very broad. Thus making the marketing channel clean and improving the efficiency and competitiveness of enterprises, which is also conducing that enterprises’ control, the reform for marketing channel and to collect more response of market changes. Roche and Imelda (1995: 231-237) believed that direct selling adapts to the trend of consumers’ individual consumption. Direct selling is a real sense of selling directly (Direct Selling Association, 2005). Future consumers pay more attention to self-shaping, resulting in the emergence of personal consumption. And direct selling can conduct direct communication with consumers by telephone, Internet, direct mail, etc. to provide customers with unique product so as to adapt to their individual needs. Caballero and Marjorie (1986:77) pointed out that direct selling is a powerful tool to build a good relationship with customers. Enterprises can establish customer files based on past customers information to track customers, to provide long-term personalized products and services to meet their specific needs and aspirations, then establishing a good brand image through spread of a good reputation. In addition, direct selling can greatly reduce consumers’ costs. For example, energy costs, time costs, etc. (Buell, 1954:102-109). Via the network, direct mail and other forms, it can be very easy for consumers to purchase, at the same time it can effectively protect consumers’ privacy security.

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