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英国留学生论文定制thesis结构指南 1 作业的结构本次作业应该包括以下几个章节:(1)引言 i)问题描述 ii)相关问题文献的简短介绍 iii)作业的目的 iv)局限性 v)方法论(2)分析(3)结论(4)总结和结论 1. The structure of the thesis The thesis should include the following sections: (1) Introduction i) The problem ii) A short review of the literature on the topic iii) The aim of the thesis iv) The limitations v) The methodology (2) The analysis (3) The results (or estimates) (4) Summary and Conclusions (5) References (1) Introduction The Introduction of the thesis should include the following five sections: (i) The problem of their thesis; it should be as simple as possible so that the reader can be oriented. All critical issues related to the problem should be pointed out in approximately one page. (ii) A short review of the literature on the topic; the authors are expected to have checked a number of recent studies (at least five), published in various scientific papers, found either through other sources, like books, or through own “research” in the Internet or libraries. The main findings of these studies should be taken up in this section. The review will guide students to their own specific aim, or even to repeat a similar study (if for instance they choose to perform an empirical work). This section should be approximately one to two pages, (See also section (2) below). (iii) The aim of the thesis; Based on (i) and (ii) students should now be able to select the specific aim, which is a small and well defined subset of the general (i). Notice that (iii) is very important and should be presented very clearly. That section will guide students all the time to see if they did what they promised to do! It should be rather short (at most one paragraph). (iv) The limitations; Since by (iii) the aim is clear, the authors must now state explicitly all limitations they need to make in order to treat it properly. Limitations are needed because no-one is able and has the time to present a “global” perspective of the topic. There are various kinds of limitations. For instance, if they write an empirical thesis, such as testing some hypotheses, they need to clarify all possible problems which they might have with the data, the period under investigation, the specification of their model, the choice of their variables, the choice of statistical method etc.., and also explain to what extend all these limitations will influence their findings. Similarly, in a theoretical thesis, they need to state all possible assumptions, under which their findings are derived, and to what extend the modification of these (or some) assumptions will influence their results. It is strongly recommended to state the key limitations and assumptions explicitly, otherwise, some neglected limitations and assumptions (or implicitly assumed) can question the validity of the thesis. This section should be approximately one page. (v) The methodology; This section can appear after (iii) and (iv), if the authors need a lot of space to explain the choice of their methodology (often in case of an empirical work). For instance, the part (iv) above, regarding the empirical work, can be included in section (v) instead, where all methodological issues should be explained. Thus, space will be saved in section (iv) and increased in section (v). Similarly, if the paper is theoretical, the chosen methodology can also include the assumptions mentioned in (iv). (2) The Analysis This is the largest part of the paper, which will show that, given section (iv) and using section (v), section (iii) is fulfilled. Again, depending on the kind of paper, all selected factors /variables / conditions should be analysed in detail. • For instance, in an empirical paper, the authors who want to test a hypothesis, they will first present what the theory (given its assumptions) tells us about the relationship between Y, X, Z etc. Then, they will try to specify the functional form(s), find appropriate measures for Y, X, Z etc, collect and check the quality of their data, run some regression equations, correct for all possible errors (misspecification, autocorrelation, multicollinearity, heteroscedasticity) and present their results. This is a very time-consuming, hard work and requires a very good knowledge in Statistics/Econometrics… • In a theoretical paper instead, students should take some standard models to start with, and modify some of their key assumptions to check what it happens to its conclusions. All economic arguments should be explained clearly. This is also a difficult work and requires a good analytical ability (not necessarily a mathematical one). The authors can instead present their theoretical work with some figures (of some degree of complexity). They can also rely on other studies presentations’ provided that they have re-worked these studies. For those students who are not able to derive their results formally, or if the formulas are complex, they can use instead simulation techniques, i.e. set explicitly some values to the key parameters. • In critical review essays, the authors are expected to have read a number of recent published studies (10-15), empirical, theoretical or mixture, analyze and present their findings in a well-structured section. Notice that in this case, section (ii) will be now integrated in section (iii). Regarding the length of the thesis it depends on some things. If it is a recent critical review of a topic, it should be about 18-20 pages of Pure Text (fonts of 12 points), with very few formulas and no Tables or Graphs, equivalent to 30 lines of pure text. With some own Tables and/or Graphs, about 25 pages; with ”borrowed” Tables or Graphs, about 30 pages; with most formal styling (i.e. using higher Maths preferably from non-textbooks) approximately 15 pages. If the number of Tables, Graphs and Figures is large, the detailed and/or non-important ones should be put in an Appendix. But, upper limit, inclusive Appendix and References is 35-40 pages! If students have used data for statistical analysis in their thesis work, they have to make the data available to their discussants. (3) The Results/Estimates This section summarizes the results (or estimates) of section (2), in a structured way. (4) Summary and Conclusions This section concludes the paper, where, among other things, authors need to state to what extend section (iii) has been achieved. They might also stress once more under which key conditions that is valid or not. Finally, they might take up some important points for further research. (5) References All references must be alphabetically; please, check the Harvard system for references and all other formalia at:, or 2. The time process i. By the end of March, all students, divided in groups (2 students per group) should have chosen their “topic” and be allocated to their supervisors. ii. By very early April, students should write a first preliminary draft of about 5 pages and meet with their supervisor to discuss it. Bear in mind that the first six sections mentioned above in “The structure of the thesis”, should be taken up while writing this draft. During the same period, to gain time, groups should try to collect data (if they need), order books & articles, search through “key words” in the Internet to find additional information. If the draft is of bad quality, the group will be given one more week to revise it, or change into another topic or aim and discuss it again. If the quality of that draft is still bad, the group will be stopped at that stage and will not be allowed to continue with the thesis. iii. Early April - early May is the period where groups work hard with their thesis. iv. By early May (at the latest week 19), a second draft of about 70% of the paper should be almost clear, sent to the supervisor and discuss/comment on it, individually per group (at the latest the second week of May). Formalia or styling issues are not important at this stage. Bad works, or works below of 50% of the paper, will be stopped at that stage, if the supervisor does not expect that the group is able to finish it on time. After the second meeting, groups will have two more weeks to correct/modify/complete their work. v. By the end of May, all groups need to be in contact with their supervisor to ensure that their work will be taken up in the final seminars. Students are responsible to check that no plagiarism exists in their paper (they can check it through Google if they wish). i. By June 1, all theses should be delivered to all other groups (either manually, or electronically) and to the supervisors as well. During that day all opposition groups should be decided. The papers will also be available from the course home page at 3. The final seminars ii. The final seminars will take place the 5-6 of June and are obligatory to all groups who belong to the same supervisor. iii. There is no overhead projector or computer projector in the room, so students will have to refer to the paper itself or bring paper hand-outs if they need. All authors and discussants must bring a copy of the paper to be discussed. iv. In Economics, students usually do not present their thesis, but they defend it against an opponent group. The authors are expected to answer and defend their thesis. All authors will be opponents to other groups’ theses. When the seminar starts, the authors are given 1-3 minutes to correct a few remaining mistakes/errors. If there are many mistakes/errors, it is appropriate to type an errata list and deliver it to all participants. v. The opponents should scrutinize the thesis they are allocated to oppose! They can start their opposition by presenting the main points of the thesis (5-10 minutes). Authors are allowed to comment on and add to the presentation (0-5 minutes). Opponents discuss then the thesis critically, asking questions which the authors answer (25-30 minutes). The opponents sum up and give a general critical appreciation of the thesis (2-3 minutes). vi. All parts should be examined, i.e. structure, economic arguments, illogical mistakes, missing points, misinterpretations, inconsistencies, the selected method, literature, formalia, language, and of course if the aim is achieved. On the other hand, even good parts should be pointed out. Throughout the seminar, the focus should be on economics rather than on formal issues. Also, opponents should concentrate mainly on what is written and less on what they should have done. The opponents can of course have suggestions or make a “normative” opposition, if the thesis is “simple” and descriptive. vii. If authors have used data for statistical analysis in their thesis, they have to make these data available to their discussants. They have two options: If it's only a small amount of data, they can include it in the paper, e.g. in an appendix. If it's a lot of data, it is better they send the data to the supervisors in separate files, and will be made available on the course website.” 4. The evaluation i. Since the aim of Bachelor Thesis in Economics is to show that students are able to write and defend a theoretical or empirical essay of some economic topic, at their free choice, using economic theory, or statistic and mathematic methods they learned from their previous courses, they should be evaluated accordingly. ii. The final mark is weighted by at least 60% of the Thesis itself, by at most 20% of its defence and by at most 20% of the opposition and active participation in all seminars. Thus, students are in fact evaluated individually (!) iii. Notice that the version presented during the final seminar counts. Moreover, no marks will be given, unless a final improved and corrected version has been sent to the supervisor/examinator, at the latest 7-8 days after the final seminars. When the supervisor has accepted the final version, students must send an electronic copy to the MDH’s library as well. For more information, check the official site: iv. Regarding the 60% of the thesis itself, the following points are weighted approximately: 1. Ability to understand, use and present the problem of the thesis, based on scientific methods of analysis: 40% 2. Ability to find and use various sources of new information, data and other scientific literature, outside the standard course books: 25% 3. The complexity of the problem/topic: 15% 4. The structure, the layout and the language of the work: 10% 5. If a “quoted” text, taken from others, is limited: 5% 6. The degree of good-cooperation in the group: 5% v. Regarding the 20% of the defence and the 20% of the opposition, the following points are weighted approximately: 1. Good defence on questions of economic issues: 60% 2. Good defence on methodological questions: 35% 3. Good defence on language or other formalia issues: 5% 4. Good opposition on questions of economic issues: 60% 5. Good opposition on methodological questions: 35% 6. Good opposition on language or other formalia issues: 5%

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