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所得税(income taxes)的相关研究—会计专业留学生毕业论文精彩节选

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Temporary differences
Temporary differences are differences in the tax and book bases of assets and liabilities. These differences in bases result in taxable or deductible amounts in future years when the asset is recovered or the liability is settled. Consider, for example, the book and tax treatment of property, plant and equipment. Often the basis of property, plant and equipment is lower under tax rules than under GAAP because the tax laws mandate faster depreciation. Thus, GAAP will report higher assets and higher income than will the tax laws. Taxes remitted to the government will be lower early in an asset’s life due to the accelerated depreciation, but will be higher in future years, once the asset is fully depreciated for tax purposes but is still depreciating for book purposes. Thus, a liability is reported on the company’s GAAP balance sheet that measures the amount of the future tax liability that will be owed when the book depreciation becomes greater than the tax depreciation. This liability is called the deferred tax liability (DTL).
Likewise, companies will often report a deferred tax asset balance. Consider, for example, the treatment of bad debts坏帐. GAAP rules set up an allowance account (thus reducing the basis of the accounts receivable balance) while tax law does not. Thus, assets (and income) will be lower for financial reporting purposes than for tax purposes. Taxes remitted to the government will be higher this year, but will be lower in a future year when the bad debt is written off for tax purposes. Thus, on the balance sheet of the company, a tax asset is included that measures the amount of future tax benefit that will be available when the same bad debts that were expensed under GAAP this year are deducted for tax purposes in a future year.
An important consideration under GAAP, when recording any asset, relates to the probability of recoverability of the asset. Under GAAP, when a firm records a deferred tax asset, it must also assess its recoverability. If it is more likely than not that the asset will not be recovered, then the firm must reduce the net asset balance. In the case of the DTA, the net asset balance is reduced by recording a valuation allowancethat offsets the DTA balance. For example, if a company recorded a $1,000 deferred tax asset, but believes that it will only benefit by $700, then it will record a valuation allowance of $300. It is important to note that the offset to the creation of the valuation allowance runs through tax expense (and thus net income). Thus, in the preceding example, the creation of the $300 valuation allowance account would increase income tax expense and thus reduce net income by $300.

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