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留学生经济学硕士论文-Production, Information Costs, and Economic Organ

留学生经济学硕士论文Production, Information Costs, and Economic Organization
Armen A. Alchian; Harold Demsetz
The American Economic Review, Vol. 62, No. 5. (Dec., 1972), pp. 777-795.
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Thu Nov 15 10:46:02 2007
Production, Information Costs, and
Economic Organization
The mark of a capitalistic society is that
resources are owned and allocated by such
nongovernmental organizations as firms,
households, and markets. Resource owners
increase productivity through cooperative
specialization and this leads to the demand
for economic organizations which facilitate
cooperation. \$'hen a lumber mill
employs a cabinetmaker, cooperation between
specialists is achieved within a firm,
and when a cabinetmaker purchases wood
from a lumberman, the cooperation takes
place across markets (or between firms).
Two important problems face a theory of
economic organization-to explain the
conditions that determine whether the
gains from spkcialization and cooperative
production can better be obtained within
an organization like the firm, or across
markets, and to explain the structure of
the organization.
I t is common to see the firm characterized
by the power to settle issues by
fiat, by authority, or by disciplinary action
superior to that available in the conventional
market. This is delusion. The firm
does not own all its inputs. I t has no
power of fiat, no authority, no disciplinary
action any different in the slightest degree
from ordinary market contracting between



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