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留学生工程类毕业论文需求:Accident Analysis and

Accident Analysis and Prevention:Effects of major-road vehicle speed and driver age and gender on left-turn gap acceptance

a Center for Advanced Transportation Systems Simulation, Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering,
University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816-2450, United States
b Computer Science Program, College of Business, Florida Gulf Coast University, 10501 FGCU Boulevard South,
Fort Myers, FL 33965-6565, United States
Received 28 August 2006; received in revised form 1 November 2006; accepted 12 December 2006
Abstract
Because the driver’s gap-acceptance maneuver is a complex and risky driving behavior, it is a highly concerned topic for traffic safety andoperation. Previous studies have mainly focused on the driver’s gap acceptance decision itself but did not pay attention to the maneuver processand driving behaviors. Using a driving simulator experiment for left-turn gap acceptance at a stop-controlled intersection, this study evaluatedthe effects of major traffic speed and driver age and gender on gap acceptance behaviors. The experiment results illustrate relationships amongdrivers’ left-turn gap decision, driver’s acceleration rate, steering action, and the influence of the gap-acceptance maneuver on the vehicles in themajor traffic stream. The experiment results identified an association between high crash risk 留学生论文网and high traffic speed at stop-controlled intersections.The older drivers, especially older female drivers, displayed a conservative driving attitude as a compensation for reduced driving ability, but also
showed to be the most vulnerable group for the relatively complex driving maneuvers.

Keywords: Driving simulator; Gap acceptance; Driving behavior; Stop-controlled intersection; Driver age difference; Driver gender difference

1. Introduction
Two-way stop-controlled (TWSC) intersections are the mostprevalent intersection type in the United States (Gattis and Low,1999). At stop-controlled intersections, drivers on the minor
road need to make use of proper gaps among the traffic tocross or merge into the major road. Because the driver’s gapacceptancemaneuver is a complex and risky driving behavior,
it is a highly concerned topic for traffic safety and operation.Retting et al. (2003) reported that nearly 700,000 motor vehiclecrashes occurred annually at stop signs in US and approximately
one-third of these crashes involved injuries in US. InMinnesota, there were 34,175 reported crashes on rural twolaneroads between 2000 and 2002. Over 32% (11,069) of these
crashes were intersection related, with 22% of the fatal ruralaccidents occurring at stop-controlled intersections (Labergeet al., 2006). Previous research has identified gap acceptanceproblems as a significant contributor to the stop-controlled intersectionaccidents and indicated that incorrect gap acceptancemight cause around 30% of left-turn accidents (Chovan et al.,1994). As an essential driving performance at stop-controlledintersections, the gap acceptance decision has been used as animportant measurement to analyze and predict traffic conflictsand accident rates at intersections (Spek et al., 2006; Alexanderet al., 2002).Furthermore, in the current AASHTO Manual (2001), thegap acceptance methodology is applied to determine intersection



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