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留学生毕业论文-留学生系统工程项目管理论文定制-Decision Making, Value Propositionin

留学生论文网提供留学生毕业论文留学生系统工程项目管理论文定制。本文从相关决策与价值阐述工程项目管理失败的各种因素分析。Proceedings of International Council On Systems Engineering (INCOSE) 2004 Region II Conference, Sep 2004 Page 1 of 9
Decision Making, Value Propositioning, and Project Failures- Reality and Responsibility
Rick Dove
Paradigm Shift International
Abstract
This paper outlines reasons for project failures and ties them to value proposition failures. It defines a valueproposition as including both the proposed project deliverable values as well as the implementation processes that willassure value is delivered. It shows that an effective value proposition is not so much about the technology beingproposed as it is about the problem and value perceptions of the Decision Makers who will sponsor a project; and thatit is the project Champion's responsibility to learn the perceptions of decisions makers, and to carefully guide theireducation of problem issues and solution values...continuously. To this end the bulk of this paper presents two models ofhow Decision Makers form perceptions from value propositions. One model represents the psychological behavior ofindividuals as Decision Makers, and the other of group decision making behavior. Both draw from Nobel Prize winningresearch and show how misperception is the general rule, illuminating the issues that the Champion must address.
Introduction
Project failure can be defined under two basic categories:
1. A project that consumes resources but fails to deliver an acceptable ROI
• the project is terminated before completion
o needs cease to exist - the world changed unpredictably
o necessary resources become insufficient or unavailable
o decision makers have a change of heart or are replaced by one's who don't care
• the project was ill defined so resources were inefficiently applied as it developed definition
• the project was incorrectly defined, resulting in user rejection or insufficient value
2. A project that consumes resources but fails to deliver as proposed
• the project exceeds budget
• the project exceeds time
• the project doesn't meet spec
Some may consider the second category as overly harsh, for in many such cases a completed project doesmaterialize and deliver an acceptable ROI. Unfortunately, budgets and schedules that are exceeded impose costlyconsequences in other areas often unassociated with the project. Budget and time are scarce resources for anyorganization. What one project takes in excess resources postpones or cancels another, as a minimum. As a maximum,there is no limit to the damage that a late, overspent, or underperforming project can cause an organization.



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