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国外媒体公司在中国 (TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY)德州农工大学论文

Foreign Media Companies in China
Case studies案例研究: Time Warner–, Disney–,MTV–
Traditionally, joint venture partnerships have been an important way for local Chinese internet operators to access global media companies’ content-rich media libraries, while foreign companies gain access to the local market.传统意义上,合资企业的伙伴关系已经成为中国本地网络运营商访问全球媒体公司的内容丰富媒体库,同时外国公司得以进入当地市场的一个重要的方式。For example, Walt Disney Group International (WDGI), Viacom (MTV) and Time Warner have forged content and technology links with leading local internet companies, and 例如,迪斯尼国际集团(WDGI),维亚康姆(MTV)和时代华纳已经与中国当地的领先互联网公司,,NeatEase.com和建立内容和技术上的联系。However, such
cooperative deals have experienced mixed success as global media companies negotiate China’s new commercial media environment and evolving socialistmarket economy.然而,这样的合作交易却在全球媒体公司与中国的新的商业媒体环境和不断发展的社会主义市场的谈判中经历过着成败参半的境遇。
Time Warner–
Time Warner, which had pioneered foreign film distribution in China as early as the 1980s, entered the Chinese internet market by establishing a joint venture operation with the Hong Kong-based internet company in2000. 时代华纳公司,早在20世纪80年代就开创了外国电影在中国发布的先例,它通过2000年建立的以香港为基地的互联网公司,以建立合资公司的方式进入中国互联网市场。For Time Warner, forging a relationship with was considered a good strategic fit, with the Chinese company providing pedigree political connections and a promising business future. Not only had successfully debuted on the NASDAQ, it was partly owned by the Chinese government’s flagship news organization Xinhua News Agency.
On an operational level, the joint venture offered AOL (component of Time Warner) a way to expand its internet services, while potentially smoothing the political path through its partnership with Xinhua News Agency, allowing Time Warner to expand its movie and television interests (Weber, 2003). However, as the global internet market shrank and suffered significant losses in 2000 and 2001, Xinhua News Agency decreased its ownership in the company.Time Warner, not satisfied with the progress of the deal with, formed a US $200 million internet joint venture in 2001 with China’s No.1 personal computer company Legend (now known as Lenovo) (Li, 2005: 7). It was hoped that the combination of Legend’s hardware and Time Warner’s internet service technology (in a similar way to Microsoft’s bundling of software and hardware)would provide a competitive advantage. However, the joint venture failed because of two key reasons. First, Legend, though a leader in hardware manufacturing,had no experience in the rapidly expanding internet industry in China. The company simply could not offer Time Warner crucial localized knowledge that would help it compete successfully with domestic internet providers such as, or NetEase. Second, Time Warner underestimated the regulatory risk in China (Li, 2005: 7). As with its agreement, Time Warner had gambled on Legend’s political connections and anticipated concessions to loosen restrictions on foreign control of internet service and content provision. However,Chinese regulators were reluctant to further open the door to foreign companies wanting to offer and control internet content and services (see Weber, 2002).Underpinning this position was the need to protect the government’s own investment in Chinese telecommunications companies, like China Telecom. Following delays in gaining permission to expand its internet service delivery and AOL’s massive losses from the global downturn in internet stocks, Time Warner announced its withdrawal from the joint venture agreement in January 2004.
Viacom (MTV) and
In late 2002, forged a cooperative deal with Viacom’s established MTV cable television operations in China. 2002年底,Netease.com与维亚康姆建立的MTV有线电视网在中国的业务签订合作协议。As MTV’s exclusive internet service partner, provides wireless products in the form of interactive clubs, English language study, and ‘Star Profiles’ in Multi-Media Services (MMS) and Short Messaging Service (SMS) formats. The partnership,called ‘MTV–NetEase M’, allows members to participate and interact with four popular cable television programs produced and distributed by MTV on China’s expanded cable television system (see Weber, 2003). For example, subscribers can send MMS or SMS messages to MTV requesting or dedicating songs, as well as order MTV ‘Star Profiles’, which are sent to mobile telephones either directly or via downloads from the web portal. This strategy is designed to complement the larger focus by Viacom on establishing its children’s global television brand Nickelodeon. Sun Deli,Chief Executive Officer of, suggests that:
… cooperation with MTV is a milestone in the development of’s wireless services.… has millions of users, most of whom are youth.MTV is the No. 1 youth brand all over the world. This partnership with MTV will consolidate NetEase’s leading position in the internet market of China. (‘Wang Yi Lian’, 2003; trans. Lu Jia)
Disney and
In 2003, Disney formed a partnership with, a leading Chinese internet company offering online media, communications, commerce and mobile value-added services.2003年,迪斯尼与Sohu.com形成了合作伙伴关系,搜狐网是中国提供互联网媒体、通信、电子商务及移动增值服务的最重要互联网公司之一。 In so doing, Disney was able to leverage’s local market knowledge and consumer reach and combine it with its own experience as a leading service provider across multiple business and technology platforms to deliver a comprehensive array of online and wireless content and services.Features of the partnership included mobile telephone content such as wallpapers,animated cards, logos and picture messages; online games and activities based on Disney’s key global brands – Mickey Mouse,Winnie the Pooh and the Lion King; and movie content from Touchstone Pictures, Miramax, Hollywood Pictures, ABC and ESPN. The partnership is designed to access the dynamic growth in internet and mobile telephone use by meeting ‘the demand for trustworthy,quality entertainment with educational values … that are fun and entertaining for kids while simultaneously promoting valuable information skills’(ChinaTechNews, 2003). Mark Handler, executive vice-president and managing director for WDGI suggests that the cooperative arrangement presents:

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