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General Linguistics and Chinese Linguistics

Concepts and terms in General Linguistics and Chinese Linguistics


一般語言學 General linguistics (including language acquisition)包括的內容
1. The elements of language structure (i.e., phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics) and how they are interrelated.
2. Phonetics and phonology: Place and manner of articulation, IPA, phones, allophones, phonemes.
3. Morphology: morphs, morphemes, affixes, prefixes, suffixes, infixes, derivation and inflection, etc.
4. Syntax: the basic principles of grammar and what is meant by a productive rule of language.
5. Who proposed the concept of deep structure and surface structure? What is generative transformational grammar?
6. Draw a tree diagram for a sentence.
7. Explain how a surface structure is transformed from a deep structure. (Use passive transformation as an example.)
8. The development of language and the significance of language change, including the variations that occur within the contexts of time, place, age, gender, and situation.
9. How are languages classified into families and branches?
10. What is synchronic and diachronic study of languages?
11. Identify the different types of change that languages undergo at all levels (e.g., phonetic and phonological, morphological and syntactic, lexical and semantic).
12. Analyze the mechanisms by which language change occurs (e.g., umlaut, phonemic splits and mergers, borrowing, euphemisms, folk etymologies, metaphors, taboos).
13. What is pragmatics, discourse analysis, and the theory of speech acts?
14. How may sentences can be used to communicate more than they are literally said?
15. Analyze principles of structure, regularity, and coherence in extended texts.
16. Demonstrate an understanding of distinctions between different types (e.g., direct vs. indirect) and varieties (e.g., commands, questions, assertions, exclamations) of speech acts.
17. What are the functions of speech acts (e.g., to inform, to amuse, to control, to persuade)?
18. Apply concepts of reference, sense, force, tone, and conversational implicature
(contextualized meaning) to the analysis of speech acts.
19. What is the distinction between performative and constative utterances (speech that
constitutes an act vs. speech that describes facts or provides information).
20. In what sense is language acquisition different from language learning?
21. What are major differences between learning first and second languages?
22. Identify the developmental stages through which language learners acquire first and second languages.
23. The cognitive, affective, and social factors that affect second-language acquisition and learning (e.g., the concept of critical period, family and peer attitudes, linguistic interference).
24. How are theories of language acquisition applied to facilitate language instruction and learning?


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