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留学生毕业论文:Gender and human resource management: a(12)


to thrive in these cultures. Furthermore, Halford et al. (1997) argue that, even when
women have no domestic responsibilities, they are often assumed to be less committed
than their male counterparts. Other commentators have also referred to a culture change
towards a more aggressive, ruthless and coercive management style in the poststructuring
era (Collinson and Collinson, 1997). Therefore it is suggested that the new
cultures are based on ‘an emergent masculine hegemony’ of the ‘active, free-standing
(male) individual’ (Halford et al., 1997: 265). The gender implications of these ‘new
cultures’ are clear, as women, for a variety of reasons, may be unwilling or unable to
compete (Thomas, 1996; Simpson, 1997; Collinson and Collinson, 1997).
In the concluding chapter, however, Wajcman rightly points out that feminine and
masculine qualities are not the preserve of either sex. ‘Feminine’ styles of management
may be adopted by men, as Kerfoot and Knights (ibid.) argue, and not all women will
follow this way of working. However, for many women, showing feminine attributes is
something that needs to be managed in their organization, as they can be seen to silence
their authority and their involvement in decision making. For women who emulate more
masculine styles of management, this raises difŽ culties in denial of sexuality, tensions
in identity management and in their life experiences and relations (Collinson et al.,
1990). Wajcman has argued that particular notions of manhood and masculinity are
embedded in the gender regime of institutions and the author clearly demonstrates the
high price that women managers pay for venturing into male-dominated territory.
Wajcman therefore, in understanding issues of gender and equality within work
organization, moves us beyond the reductionism of the sameness and difference debate,
and focuses on the ways in which gender divisions are actively created and sustained in
organizational and home life. The Ž nal volume in this review, Transforming Managers:
Gendering Change in the Public Sector, edited by Whitehead and Moodley, takes us
even further in understanding how ‘organization’ and ‘management’ are contested
concepts, socially constructed, in  ux and certainly not abstract and (gender) neutral.
More speciŽ cally, and perhaps optimistically, the volume considers the issue of
organizational restructuring as an arena for the challenging of masculinist managerial
discourses. Focusing on the micro-politics of resistance (in uenced by Foucauldian
feminist approaches), the volume examines how men and women managers make sense
of the changing managerial and organizational landscape of public-sector restructuring.
The book is divided into two parts, with Part 1 presenting a number of personal


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