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留学生毕业论文:GLOBAL EMPLOYMENT TRENDS for WOMEN

GLOBAL EMPLOYMENT TRENDS for WOMEN
1. Overview
During the 1980s and 1990s women’s participation in labour markets worldwide grewsubstantially. This gave rise to expectations that increased opportunities and economic autonomyfor women would bring 留学生论文网greater gender equality. To help determine the extent to which such hopesare being realized, it is necessary to analyse women’s labour market trends in more detail. To thisend, the Global Employment Trends for Women Brief 2007 focuses on whether the tendency towardincreased participation has continued more recently and whether women have found enough decentand productive jobs to really enable them to use their potential in the labour market and achieveeconomic independence.
The approach is based on updates and analysis of a number of major labour market indicators.These include: labour force participation; unemployment; sector and status of employment;wages/earnings; and education and skills. Taken together, they show whether women who want towork actually do so, whether women find it harder to get a job than men, differences in the type ofwork done by women and men and equality of treatment in areas ranging from pay to education andtraining.
Main findings are:
· In absolute numbers, more women than ever before are participating in labour marketsworldwide. They are either in work or actively looking for a job.
· This overall figure only tells part of the story, however. During the past ten years, thelabour force participation rate (the share of working-age women who work or areseeking work) stopped growing, with many regions registering declines. This reversalis notable, even though it partially reflects greater participation of young women ineducation.
· More women than ever before are actually in work1. The female share of totalemployment stayed almost unchanged at 40 percent in 2006 (from 39.7 per cent 10years ago).
· At the same time, more women than ever before are unemployed, with the rate ofwomen’s unemployment (6.6 per cent) higher than that of men (6.1 per cent).
· Women are more likely to work in low productivity jobs in agriculture and services.Women’s share in industrial employment is much smaller than men’s and has
decreased over the last ten years.
· The poorer the region, the greater the likelihood that women work as unpaidcontributing family members2 or low-income own-account workers. Female
1 The expression “in work” summarizes all people employed according to the ILO definition, which includes selfemployed,employed, employers as well as unpaid family members. The words “employed” and “in work” are used assynonyms in this GET for Women Brief 2007.
ISBN 978-92-2-120136-6
2 Global Employment Trends for Women
contributing family workers, in particular, are not likely to be economically



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