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留学生毕业论文:Standardization versus adaptation of

EuropeanJournalof Marketing
Standardization versus adaptation of international advertising strategies:Towards a framework
Nikolaos Papavassiliou and Vlasis Stathakopoulos
Department of Management Science and Marketing, Athens Universityof Economics and Business, Athens, Greece
留学生论文网In the international marketing literature the topic of a global marketing mixstrategy has been debated quite extensively (see, for example, Ghoshal, 1987;
Jain, 1989; Levitt, 1983; Quelch and Hoff, 1986). Interestingly, advertising is atthe centre of this debate and receives most of the researchers’ attention. Theissue of advertising standardization in foreign markets was first discussed inthe early 1960s (Elinder, 1961; Fatt, 1964). Since then, the issue has ignited alively and heated debate among scholars and practitioners alike.International advertising standardization refers to using a common approach(i.e. common advertising messages) to promote the same product acrossnational boundaries. Even though the debate on standardized internationaladvertising is ongoing, an examination of previous research in its totalityidentifies two main approaches to international advertising: standardizationand adaptation of advertising campaigns.Proponents of the standardization approach argue that a single advertisingmessage with only minor modifications, or even advertisements with propertranslations, can be used in all countries to reach consumers. The rationalebehind this position is that buyers everywhere in the world share the same, orvery similar, wants and needs and, therefore, can be persuaded by universaladvertising appeals (Buzell, 1968; Fatt, 1967; Killough, 1978; Levitt, 1983;Sorenson and Weichmann, 1975). There are four main reasons that make thisapproach appealing. First, it allows the multinational corporation to maintain aconsistent image and identity throughout the world. Second, it minimizesconfusion among buyers who travel frequently. Third, it allows the multinationalcompany to develop a single, co-ordinated advertising campaign across differentmarkets. Finally, this approach results in considerable savings in media costs,advertising production costs, and advertising illustrative material.In contrast, opponents of the standardization approach argue that separatemessages should be used to reach buyers in different markets by fitting themessage to each particular country (Kotler, 1986). According to this approach,there are insurmountable differences (e.g. cultural, economic, legal, media andproduct dissimilarities) between countries and even between regions in the samecountry. Furthermore, these differences necessitate the adaptation or developmentof new/different advertising strategies. In addition, anecdotal evidence seems tochallenge the basic assumption of the standardization approach by suggestingthat assuming similar buying motives for consumers across foreign markets may,at best, be simplistic and, at worst, dangerous (Helming, 1982; Youovich, 1982).



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