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留学生国际运营管理论文-出口章节课件International Operations Management Week 8 Exporting 1

Learning Objectives学习目标
 

Distribution Channels后勤

Logistics风险管理与保险

Risk and Insurance国际贸易定价

International Trade Pricing分销渠道

Distribution Channels主要渠道

2 Principal Channels间接渠道
Indirect Channels:
 

firms export through an independent local middleman who assumes responsibility for moving products overseas公司通过一个独立的本地中间人,谁负责移动产品的海外出口

Manufacturer incurs no start-up cost制造商不会招致启动成本

Small firms with little experience小企业与小经验

Disadvantages缺点

Manufacturer loses control over marketing of its products overseas制造商失去了其产品在海外市场的控制权

Manufacturer’s success totally depends on the initiative and efforts of chosen intermediary制造商的成功完全依赖于选择中介机构的倡议和努力
 

Direct Channels
Firm sells directly to foreign distributors, retailers or trading companies
Agents located in a foreign country
Can be expensive and time consuming
Offers opportunities to learn about their markets
Forge better relationships with their trading partners
Greater control over various activities

直接渠道
公司直接销售到国外分销商,零售商或贸易公司
在国外的代理
可以是昂贵和费时的
提供了机会,以了解其市场
建立更好的关系,与他们的贸易伙伴
更好地控制各种活动

How to choose distribution channel
International marketing objectives of the firm
Manufacturer’s resources and experience
Availability and capability of Intermediary
Customer and Product Characteristics
Marketing Environment
Control and Coverage
Types of Intermediaries


Customer and Product Characteristics
 

Large and concentrated in major population centres, direct or multiple channels of distribution
Customers habits (certain channels)
Geographically homogenous with similar buying habits – direct channels
Industrial equipment of considerable size and value that requires after sales service- direct channels
Products of a perishable nature or high unit value- direct channels
Custom made or highly differentiated- direct channels

Control and Coverage
 

Direct or integrated channel- more control over its distribution
Not practical option for firms that do not have International Business Operations Management courseware adequate foreign market knowledge and/or necessary financial, operational and strategic capabilities
Indirect control mechanisms
Process Controls:



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