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商业经济学论文-评估公共和个人决策对经济的作用

  移民对英国经济成本的效益分析

  A cost – benefit analysis of immigration to the UK economy

  评估公共和个人决策对经济的作用

  The role of economic evaluation within public and private decision making

  Rationale

  通过对经济评估过程中的识别、计量、估值和比较特定项目的成本及收益,可以对一些经济问题进行评估,从而得到一个可行的结果。这样的评估通常由政府或公司承担,并会伴随着一定的成本节约措施。无论在任何事情上,评估进行时这四个方便都必须考虑到具体的方面。

  Economic evaluation is the process in which the identification, measurement, valuation and comparison of the costs and benefits of a particular project in question are evaluated to assess a feasible outcome. An evaluation is normally conducted by the Government on potential policies for example or a firm for potential cost saving measures. No matter on the conductor, the evaluation is carried out for the same four specific reasons which must be considered.

  当进行经济评估的时候,最理想的结果可以更有效地分配可用利用资源的成本。这是因为影响效益的决策总是有一个损失和增收的成本。

  When conducting an economic evaluation it is desired that the outcome will allocate resources available more effectively and efficiently by the use of opportunity cost. This is the cost and the benefit of decision-making as there is always a loss and always a gain.

  Mostly concerned with Government, the effectiveness of a potential policy in the form of laws and regulation are measured. A technique used by the Government is known as ‘evidence-based’ policy making. This is where an area is researched in order to evaluate the policy which can eradicate or amend a current problem in the economy. (odi.org, 28 March 2010)

  Evaluations are carried out in order to promote awareness of issues or events in an economy. For example does a specific event such as a global warming awareness concert add to our economic benefits or does it decrease our awareness and eat through our budget?

  The final purpose is to attract funding, such as that which would be received through Government, or to justify funding in an economy.

  Examples

  An example of an evaluation already conducted is research by Manuel Zymelman on vocational training programs. In his evaluation he makes use of techniques such as cost utility analysis to evaluate the benefits that these programs give our economy as opposed to other programs such as on and off the job training. (Zymelman, M 1976)

  Another example of a previous evaluation was carried out by the Moffat Centre for Travel and Tourism Business Development in Glasgow Caledonian University for the Ayrshire and Arran Tourist Board in 2003. It evaluated the impact of the Burns festival which were mainly social based, analysing the implications on the local tourist industry, residents and visitors. They made use of both qualitative and quantitative methods used for this example based in the form of surveys and intercept analysis. (Moffat Centre for Travel and Tourism Business Development)



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