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亚洲城市经济发展分析报告-代写金融学论文

  亚洲城市经济发展分析报告

  Analysis report of rapid economic development in Asian cities

  在过去的30年中,亚洲城市的经济出现了惊人的发展,吸引了很多专业人士的关注,并产生了成千上万的书籍和文章来试图解释这种现象。最突出的例子就是日本,韩国,新加坡和中国的一些城市,它们经常被称为“化腐朽为神奇”的城市。在本文中,我们将从三个方面,即人口动态,经济市场,社会和政治,来讨论影响经济快速发展的可能性因素。

  Over the past 30 years, there have been amazing economic developments in Asian cities, which has attracted professional attentions and evoked thousands of books and articles attempting to explain this phenomenon. The outstanding examples are cities in Japan, Korea, Singapore, and China, frequently referred to by these articles as "miraculous"[1]. In this paper, three aspects including population dynamics, economic markets, and socio-political conditions, will be discussed as the possible factors which may have attributed to this economic acceleration.

  几个亚洲城市的经验表明,经济增长可以达到降低人口出生率的作用。

  The experience of several Asian cities indicated that economic gains can be achieved by reducing the birthrate of population.

  大约在50年前,亚洲大多数城市人口稠密,那里的人生活在极度的贫困之中,由于人口众多,大量消耗量极其有限的自然资源。自20世纪60年代以来,大力控制人口增长的政策被广泛的执行,在此期间,亚洲大多数城市的经济增长开始加速。图1.1清楚地显示,亚洲大部分地区在1955年至1995年期间生育率大幅降低。

  Fifty years ago, most Asian cities were densely populated, where people were living in poverty due to large populations consuming extremely limited natural resources. Since the 1960s, vigorous policies to control population growth were widely applied, and the economic growth of most Asian cities started to accelerate in the meantime. Figure 1.1 clearly displays that the rate of childbearing in most Asian regions was drastically reduced from 1955 to 1995.

  The reduction of the population was not the only reason for the boost in the Asian economy, but also the change of demographic structures in Asian cities. Based on the recent statistical data, it is reported that over 40% of the Asian population was urbanized [2]. Increasing amounts of young people came to cities seeking more working opportunities, which enlarged the size of the working-age population in the urban age-structure. Figure 1.2 reveals the demographic structure change of Tokyo, a Japanese city, since 1925. The percentage of the young people in the total population started to strongly extend after 1955.

  By consuming fewer natural resources and by having a larger working population aggregated in cities, Asian cities experienced economic increases.

  Compared with western cities, most developing Asian cities have many potential markets waiting for development. However, the market is a necessary condition rather than a sufficient condition for the boom of an economy. In other words, a vast potential market does not warrant any of the prosperity of trade. Political and social policies that encourage and benefit merchants usually work faster and more directly than any other factors.

  After World War II, Asian developing countries set up various industrial policies to encourage frontier technologies. Innovation and learning were widely triggered by imitating technologies that are already being applied elsewhere [5]. Technology and innovation are the key drivers of productivity growth, which enabled the local producers in Asian cities to cope with increasing international competition.

  More and more foreign investments are further contributors to the fast development in Asian cities. Before the 1980s, most Asian governments view foreign investments and Multinationals Corporations (MNCs) with great wariness. Both were believed would impinge on national sovereignty and security, as the modern form of economic colonialism and exploitation. After 1985, some Asian cities started to remove restrictions and implement policies to attract foreign investment inflows, when they realized this may accelerate technological change, emergence of globally integrated production and marketing networks. http://ukthesiss.com/jr/  only $53.7 billion in 1980, foreign investment to Asian cities reached $1.4 trillion in 2000.

  In sum, the rapid economic development in Asian cities happened due to multiple reasons, even more than the ones discussed above. After the World War II, the economies in most Asian cities were severely damaged. Compared with western cities, they had lower starting points and larger spaces for growth. With this background, the change of the population structure and the industrial polices stimulating economies successfully catalyzed the “miraculous” development of Asian cities. Their experiences in these two aspects could be used as good reference points by other western cities for future economical development.



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