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留学生计算机硕士论文范文-多议题协商协议框架构建-Artificial Intelligence-An agenda-b

留学生计算机硕士论文范文-多议题协商协议框架构建-Artificial Intelligence-An agenda-based framework for multi-issue negotiation由留学生论文代写中心提供整理文本资源,帮助写更好的计算机硕士论文。Shaheen S. Fatima a,∗, Michael Wooldridge a, Nicholas R. Jennings b
a Department of Computer Science, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZF, UK
b Department of Electronics and Computer Science, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK
Received 28 April 2002; received in revised form 28 March 2003
Abstract
This paper presents a new model for multi-issue negotiation under time constraints in an
incomplete information setting. The issues to be bargained over can be associated with a single
good/service or multiple goods/services. In our agenda-based model, the order in which issues are
bargained over and agreements are reached is determined endogenously, as part of the bargaining
equilibrium. In this context we determine the conditions under which agents have similar preferences
over the implementation scheme and the conditions under which they have conflicting preferences.
Our analysis shows the existence of equilibrium even when both players have uncertain information
about each other, and each agent’s information is its private knowledge. We also study the properties
of the equilibrium solution and determine conditions under which it is unique, symmetric, and Paretooptimal.
 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Multi-issue negotiation; Game theory; Agendas; Intelligent agents
1. Introduction
Negotiation is a means for agents to communicate and compromise to reach mutually
beneficial agreements [11,14,18,29,30,40]. In such situations, agents have a common
interest to cooperate, but have conflicting interests over exactly how to cooperate. Put
differently, agents can mutually benefit from reaching agreement on an outcome from a
* Corresponding author.
doi:10.1016/S0004-3702(03)00115-2
2 S.S. Fatima et al. / Artificial Intelligence 152 (2004) 1–45
set of possible outcomes, but have conflicting interests over the set of outcomes. In this
context, the main problem that confronts agents is to decide how to cooperate—before
they actually enact the cooperation and obtain the associated benefits. On the one hand,
each agent would like to reach some agreement rather than disagree and not reach any
agreement. But, on the other hand, each agent would like to reach an agreement that is as
favourable to it as possible.
To this end, a number of negotiation models that address this problem have been
developed and applied to data allocation in information servers, resource allocation and
task distribution [18,19,27,31,32]. Apart from these, another application area in which
agent-mediated negotiation has received considerable attention is in the field of electronic



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