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计算机通信方式的发展_计算机网络论文

  需要注意的是,信息不再是一种稀缺的资源。大卫·罗斯是一位住在马萨诸塞州的剑桥大学计算机接口方面的专家。值得指出的是,在20年前,工作的时候只有两种通信方式:一种是电话,它可以做到即时交互,另一种则是邮件,这需要很多天的时间。 “现在我们在不同的地方则有更多的交流方式”罗斯说。

  Information is no longer a scarce resource - attention is. David Rose, a Cambridge, Mass.-based expert on computer interfaces, likes to point out that 20 years ago, an office worker had only two types of communication technology: a phone, which required an instant answer, and postal mail, which took days. "Now we have dozens of possibilities between those poles," Rose says.

  你应该怎么样可以快速回复电子邮件吗?或即时消息?当计算机网络出现中断的时候,人们的交流会陷入一种不确定性的陷阱:我们很难确定电子邮件是否会打断你的工作,因为除非你自己打开并阅读它 - 当然,从这一点来看,是你打断了自己。我们的软件工具基本上就是了参与我们所关注的互相竞争,就像为了婴儿一样。

  How fast are you supposed to reply to an e-mail message? Or an instant message? Computer-based interruptions fall into a sort of Heisenbergian uncertainty trap: it is difficult to know whether an e-mail message is worth interrupting your work for unless you open and read it - at which point you have, of course, interrupted yourself. Our software tools were essentially designed to compete with one another for our attention, like needy toddlers.

  这就是在现代办公室为什么我们有如此复杂且混乱的情绪的原因, 当我们感觉到兴奋的时候好像在洪水中冲浪一样。

  It is why we have such complex emotions about the chaos of the modern office, feeling alternately drained by its demands and exhilarated when we successfully surf the flood.

  This can actually be a positive feeling, inasmuch as the constant pinging makes us feel needed and desired. The reason many interruptions seem impossible to ignore is that they are about relationships - someone, or something, is calling out to us.

  The upshot is something that Linda Stone, a software executive who has worked for both Apple and Microsoft, calls "continuous partial attention": we are so busy keeping tabs on everything that we never focus on anything.

  "It makes us feel alive," Stone says. "It's what makes us feel important. We just want to connect, connect, connect. But what happens when you take that to the extreme? You get overconnected." Sanity lies on the path down the center - if only there was some way to find it.

  It is this middle path that Czerwinski and her generation of computer scientists are now trying to divine. When I first met her in the corridors of Microsoft, she struck me as a strange person to be studying the art of focusing, because she seemed almost attention-deficit disordered herself: a 44-year-old with a pageboy haircut and the electric body language of a teenager. "I'm such a spaz," she said, as we went bounding down the hallways to the cafeteria for a "bio-break." When she ushered me into her office, it was a perfect Exhibit A of the go-go computer-driven life: she had not one but three enormous computer screens, festooned with perhaps 30 open windows - a bunch of e-mail messages, several instant messages and dozens of Web pages. Czerwinski says she regards 20 solid minutes of uninterrupted work as a major triumph; often she'll stay in her office for hours after work, crunching data, since that's the only time her outside distractions wane. 



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