教育学论文 旅游管理 社会学论文 广告学论文 MBA论文 会计学论文 媒体学 物流学论文 国际商务管理 金融学论文 计算机网络
返回首页

分配格式化任务ASSIGNMENT TASK:有关学生学习的机动性(3)

 
Oppenheimer’s Process-Oriented Model
A “process-oriented model of motivation” proposed by Dornyei (2000) involves the dividing up of a goal into sub-goals and a time frame for achieving each sub-goal.  Therefore, the learner can be continually and consistently highly motivated towards the achievement of the overall goal.  For example, a unit of study at university can be divided up into tasks according to assignments, reading of book chapters and exam preparation.  Achievement of each sub-goal (the tasks) according to the pre-determined time limits will, it is believed, lead to greater and continuing motivation.  Furthermore, the unit itself is a sub-goal of the overall course.  As a result, the completion of a unit becomes the motivation for completion and success in the next unit.
 
Lewin’s “Unfreezing,Change,and Refreezing” Model
One of the problems involved with Dornyei’s approach, according to Oppenheimer (2001), is that the learner will not necessarily be motivated to complete the goals.  He claims that this is because achieving goals “may also mean having to change or do things that are unfamiliar or uncomfortable”.  Oppenheimer applies a model developed by Lewin referred to as the “unfreezing, change, and refreezing” model of change.  According to this model, the unmotivated student is unmotivated (frozen in action). The learner needs to be made dissatisfied with their current situation in order to become motivated (unfrozen) before any change can take place.  Once the change has happened and positive feedback has been received, refreezing (in which new, positive behaviours are continued) occurs.  Oppenheimer used questionnaires in an experiment which increased his students’ self awareness of themselves and their current situation and directed them towards what would increase their satisfaction.  He found, among many other factors, that the behaviours of importance to the teacher (such as class participation) were not of any great importance to the learners; however, by making changes in the behaviours that were important to the students (such as reviewing course material), their exam grades did improve.  
 
Rauch and Fillenworth’s Counselling Approach
However, according to Rauch and Fillenworth (1995, p. 568), it is important for any degree of change to be met with a similar degree of change in positive outcomes.  If a student makes a change in learning style but is rewarded with a small improvement in exam grades, the student will revert to the previous, possibly unreliable, behaviours.  Therefore, some guidance must be necessary so that appropriate changes in behaviour are made initially.  Rauch and Fillenworth (p. 568) suggest 10 methods that can help to guide students in their choices, but following their strategy can be problematic.  This is because any change or guidance suggested by the teacher which is acted on by the student may not be successful in terms of the outcomes desired by the student.  Therefore, the facilitator, acting as a guide or counsellor, becomes partially responsible for the failure of their student to not meet their desired outcome.


------分隔线----------------------------
UK Thesis Base Contacts

24小时在线客服

QQ:77276002

Email:77276002@qq.com

推荐内容