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第4议论文文件:Argumentative Essay

本文需要你了解一个有争议的问题。在这个问题上的不同立场,分析的基础上采取的立场和捍卫你的立场,呈现良好的
证据或反驳不利的证据的基础上指定的文章。
 
 
 
Objective 
 
This paper requires you to understand a controversial issue and the various positions on this issue, 
to take a position based on your analysis; and to defend your positions by presenting favorable 
evidence or refuting unfavorable evidence based on the assigned articles. 
 
Topic 
 
Option 1: The Existence of Extraterrestrial Life 
 
People have been arguing about the existence of the possibility of life outside of earth. Although 
some evidence has shown this may be true, others have argued that this may only be a dream. 
 
In paper 4a, you will explore this issue and people’s different perspectives by reading the 
following two articles; and then follow the procedure laid below to finish your paper draft. 
 
Wilford, J. N. (2003). Get set to say hi to the neighbors. In Rottenberg, A. T. (Ed.) 
Elements of Argument: A Text and Reader. New York: Bedford/St. Martin’s 
Browne, M. W. (2003). Left the light on, but nobody came. In Rottenberg, A. T. (Ed.) 
Elements of Argument: A Text and Reader. New York: Bedford/St. Martin’s 
Option 2: Cochlear Implant and the Deaf Culture 
 
In Sound and Fury, you have watched the family’s struggle over whether or not to have the little 
girl, Heather, go through the cochlear implant procedure. This is indeed a debate between the 
family members. After watching the film, you should have a better understanding of their 
situation and issue. 

在4A纸,你会探讨这个问题和人们的不同观点反映后,纪录片和阅读中的一些摘录的文章,然后按照以下步骤奠定
完成论文初稿。阅读指定的文章,并采取票据(票据可以是你的想法,或复述和段落的主要观点摘要)。
 
In paper 4a, you will explore this issue and people’s different perspectives by reflecting upon the 
documentary and reading some excerpts of essays; and then follow the procedure laid below to 
finish your paper draft. 
 
Sound and Fury (2001). Documentary. 
PBS. (2010). Materials compiled from discussions on the use of cochlear implant. 
Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/wnet/soundandfury/ on Nov. 9, 2010. 
Procedure 
 
1. 
Read the assigned articles and take notes (the notes can be your thoughts, or paraphrases and 
summaries of the main ideas of the paragraphs) 
2. 
Draw an outline of the structure of your planned essay, addressing the following questions: 
What is the controversial issue? How are you going to introduce it to make it sound 
controversial? 
 
 
 
 
 
How many different opinions are there concerning this issue? What are their main 
supporting points? 
What is your position on this issue? That will become your thesis statement. 
What are your supporting points to defend your position? Those will become the topic 
sentences. 
What are some of the evidence you can use to support your views?  http://ukthesiss.com/jyx Those will be your 
supporting details. 
3. 
Fill in the blanks in the structural template 
4. 
Work on the rough draft (paper 4a) 
5. 
Revise and edit 
6. 
Work on the final draft (paper 4b) 
Requirements 
 
1. 
Word limit: 800 – 1000 words 
2. 
See specific paragraph requirements in the structural template 
Structural Template 
 
Paragraph 1-2 Introduction 
Requirements: the introduction should accomplish the following things. 
 
 
1. 
Describe some specific story briefly to introduce your issue. 
2. 
A transitional sentence that connects the attention getter to the background information. 
3. 
Write a few more sentences to introduce the more general topic that is related to your 
issue. What is it? What do people think about this? 
4. 
Come back to your issue and your position. This is your thesis statement. You may add 
optional summary of your supporting points here too.
(You can decide whether to have 1 or 2 paragraphs for your introduction.) 
 
Paragraph 2 Definition of key terms 
 
Requirements: the definition paragraph needs to define and explain the key terms in a 
controversial issue. The purpose is to make things easier for you later on when you present your 
arguments. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1. 
What are the terms you want to define? Define them using the essays or some 
dictionaries, or your own understandings. Consider why you define certain things in 
certain ways, and explain that in your own words explicitly. 
2. 
If there are no key terms to define, think about the scope of your argument. Do you want 
to set a limit with regard to what to argue for or what to argue against? Explain these 
ideas here. 
Paragraph 3 Supporting point I. 
 
Requirements: present and explain the first supporting point. 
 
1. 
Topic sentence from your outline 
2. 
sub-point 1: q/p/s + explanations 
3. 
sub-point 2: q/p/s + explanations 
4. 
sub-point 3: q/p/s + explanations 
Paragraph 4 Supporting point II. 
 
Requirements: present and explain the first supporting point. 
 
1. 
Topic sentence from your outline 
2. 
sub-point 1: q/p/s + explanations 
3. 
sub-point 2: q/p/s + explanations 
4. 
sub-point 3: q/p/s + explanations 
Paragraph 5 Supporting point III. 
 
Requirements: present and explain the first supporting point. 
 
1. 
Topic sentence from your outline 
2. 
sub-point 1: q/p/s + explanations 
3. 
sub-point 2: q/p/s + explanations 
4. 
sub-point 3: q/p/s + explanations 
Paragraph 6 Conclusions 
 
Requirements: Conclude with a summary of your position and a restatement of your reasons and 
why they are significant. Discuss things that you think might be true from the opposing side to 
show that you have taken into account of the overall picture of an issue
 
1. 
Why is the controversial issue of interest to you and the whole class? This is the 
significance of your topic. 
2. 
What are different sides of views? 
3. 
What are your views and why do you think it is more reasonable than the others? 
 
 
 
 
 
 


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