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导读:本文的分析主要类型是参与观察,并强调从反应和伦理方面来评估每个角色。这篇essay由英国论文网代写留学生作业中心代写management essay频道推荐提供。

The participant observer comes to a social situation with two purposes: one is to engage in activities appropriate to the situation, and another is to observe the activities, people, and physical aspects of the situation. In the process of carrying out these actions, the observer might use appropriate way to engaged in research. Gold (1958) divided four roles of participant observation. Also related to Norris' article, this paper examines to analysis two main types of participant observation, and emphasized from reactivity and ethics aspects to evaluate each roles of participant observation.

Firstly, briefly introduce the study of participant observation, defined and described how it works, covert or overt, passive or active? Then, concentrated on analysis two types: Covert and Overt participant observation, generally analysis these two types, and there are detailed information to critical analysis each role.

Most specially, depend upon which role of participant observer act, critical analysis people's reaction to observer, and the people who participant in the research, their reactivity is different unless they know the researcher's identity. In addition, another section will look at the ethics arose for each role, this perspective will explore from four main leading principles to analysis: informed consent, privacy, harm to participants, and deceit & trust.

Thirdly, sometimes these two roles will different to distinctions, so there is an evaluation and explain, detailed information developed in the second question: evaluate all forms of PO involve some aspect of covert research

Finally, there is a conclusion to summarize all key points which analysis in the main body, and given clearly evidence.

There are many definition of participant observation, here, just briefly summarize and give one definition of participant observation: Participant observation refers to a form of sociological research methodology in which the researcher takes on a role in the social situation under observation.

The social researcher immerses herself in the social setting under study, getting to know key actors in that location in a role which is either covert or overt, although in practice, the researcher will often move between these two roles.

According to different situations, the observer will decide what actions performed. Apart from over or a covert role will adopted by researcher, a further issue that is raised about any situation in which the participates during these two forms, they should be or can be an active take part in or passive engaged in the project (Van Maanen,1978, cited by Bryman&Bell,2003).

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