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关于卡拉瓦乔初始阶段人性化的宗教艺术的探讨

Caravaggio: Inception of humanization in religious art卡拉瓦乔:初始阶段人性化的宗教艺术
Artists' predilection for tranquility and elegance in depicting religious scenes formed the classical tradition of Italian art. 艺术家所描绘的带有宁静和优雅的偏好的宗教场面,形成了传统的古典的意大利艺术。From medieval period to the era of the Renaissance, reverent masters, including Cimabue, Jean van Eyck as well as Giovanni Bellini, followed this tradition, regardless of their distinct personal styles, and this conventional style reached its peak in Raphael’s paintings. However, up until the 17th century, this long-lasting tradition was rivaled by newly developed humanization and naturalism, introduced by Caravaggio, an unruly Italian artist. Caravaggio’s innovations marked a breakthrough in the history of sacred art and exerted profound influences on later artists. 在历史上,卡拉瓦乔的创新在神圣的艺术史上获得了一个巨大的突破,并对以后的艺术家产生了深远的影响。
Caravaggio boldly rejected the idealism of traditions and adopted humanization in both figure depiction and background setting. He depicted religious figures as ordinary people and set holy event into a mundane backdrop. The prevalence of idealism and grace was shown in traditional Christian art pieces, such as the elongated figures in Annunciation Altarpiece, Simone Martini, 1333.  Simone Martini, together with other international style painters, used elongated and weightless figures to present the Virgin Mary’s elegance and ideal emotions. Besides, the settings that traditional artists chose were usually peaceful and decent. Hugo van der Goes’s Portinari Altarpiece, 1476 was a convincing example. Hugo van der Goes depicted a grandeur scene to lessen the drama of this miraculous event.  Different from precedent masters, Caravaggio unidealized religious characters, as well as the backgrounds. In Conversion of Saint Paul, 1601, Saint Paul was portrayed as a humble young man, whom people could see in the streets. His figure was foreshortened, lying on the ground with his arms stretched out to the sky. This pose was far from elegant or decorous. The setting of this occasion was murky and dingy, lack of heavenly grandeur and grace. Even though both Caravaggio and traditional artists chose mundane scenes, the moods showed in these scenes were drastically different. For instance, in Madonna in the Meadow, 1505—1506, Raphael applied subtle lighting and soft lines to render idyllic beauty whereas Caravaggio employed dim light to reveal a dingy place. The emotions showed in coarse and harsh backgrounds were more convincing than the arcadia-like settings. His choice of unidealized figures and dingy settings influenced later painters, such as Artemisia Gentileschi. In Judith Slaying Holofernes, 1614—1620, Artemisia Gentileschi showed naturalism in depicting figures and the bed that soaked by blood. This unidealized scene successfully showed violence and cruelty of this very moment. 


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