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英国论文网:Choice, diversity and ‘false consciousnes

International Journal of Training and Development 10:1ISSN 1360-3736
© 2006 The Author. Journal Compilation © 2006 Blackwell Publishing Ltd., 9600 Garsington Road, Oxford OX4 2DQ,
UK and 350 Main St., Malden, MA 02148, USA.
英国论文网Choice, diversity and ‘false consciousness’
41
Blackwell Publishing Ltd.Oxford, UK and Malden, USAIJTDInternational Journal of Training and Development1360-3736Blackwell Publishing Ltd. 20052005
10
14154Articles
Choice, diversity and
‘false consciousness’International Journal of Training and Development
r
Val Caven, Department of Human Resource Management, Nottingham Business School, Nottingham
Trent University, Nottingham NG1 4BU, UK. E-mail: valerie.caven@ntu.ac.uk.
Choice, diversity and
‘false consciousness’ in
women’s careers
Val Caven
The central theme of this paper is that contemporary literatureconcerning women’s careers is based on assumptions held byresearchers and not actually on views held by women themselves.Many feminist researchers are guilty of assuming ‘falseconsciousness’ on the part of their subjects by explaining thesewomen as being victims of gender or patriarchal systemsinstead of making a mindful decision founded on choice. Theempirical work draws on in-depth interviews with 39 womenarchitects. Of the 39 women interviewed, 20 had adopted alternativeways of working in the sense that they had rejected theconventional career within an organization. Their reasons forthis were diverse and ranged from wanting to combine child orelder care with work; involvement in local politics; wantingtime for further study or sporting activities; as well as just notwanting to work full-time. In short, this research demonstratesthat work is not always a central interest in the lives of individualsand supports Hakim’s view of heterogeneity amongwomen.
Introduction
http://ukthesiss.com/dissertation_sample/Conventional literature regarding women’s careers assumes that women want to workfull-time, and alternative forms of work organization other than an upward, linearprogression within an organization are regarded with a sense of failure (Mallon &Cohen, 2001). Hakim’s (1996, 1998, 2000, 2002, 2003) contention that women havediffering orientations to work challenged many of these assumptions and became thesubject of much derision from her critics (Bruegel, 1996; Crompton & Harris, 1998;Crompton & Le Feuvre, 1996; Ginnet al
., 1996; McRae, 2003a, 2003b; Procter & Pad42
International Journal of Training and Development
© 2006 The Author. Journal Compilation © 2006 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
field, 1999; Walsh, 1999). The only area of common ground appears to be that McRae
(2003a, 2003b) concurs that most sociological theory is inadequate at explaining
women’s employment decisions.
Sociological theories overemphasize structural factors, and micro-level explanationssuch as preference are ignored (Hakim, 2002). However, many women want to carefor their own families (Meiksins & Whalley, 1998) rather than rely on institutional careand do this by adopting work patterns, which allow them to maximize both theiremployment careers and family life (Meiksins & Whalley, 1998; Tilly, 1996; Walsh,1999). Hakim’s critics have largely overlooked this fact, preferring instead to focus oneconomic and social factors (McRae, 2003a, 2003b) and lack of institutional child careas the major constraints upon women’s employment (Bruegel, 1996; Crompton &Harris, 1998; Crompton & Le Feuvre, 1996; Ginn



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