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英国论文:产品开发与消费者需求

  为了鼓励员工多走一走,家乐氏给每个员工提供了一个计步器。这些举措有助于家乐氏公司的员工理解公司的​​经营目标,以及他们在为企业所创造的价值。这也能清楚地反馈给员工为实现公司的目标,该做些什么事情。

  To encourage its employees to do more walking, Kellogg supplied each of its staff with a pedometer. Such activities have helped Kellogg's employees to understand the business objectives and why the business has created them. It also shows clearly what it has done to achieve them.

  许多公司都是以产品为导向。这就意味着,他们需要先开发出的产品,然后再去市场寻找销售的机会。家乐氏公司一开始就以市场为导向。这意味着它的整个生产环节集中于满足消费者的需求。

  Many organisations are described as product orientated. This means they develop a product and then look for a market to sell to. Kellogg's is market orientated. This means that the whole organisation focuses on the needs of its consumers.

  因此,它可以充分了解和及时的去迎合消费者的需求,开发出新的产品。

  It is therefore essential that it identifies and anticipates changing consumer needs before the development of new products

  Market research adds value to businesses like Kellogg's by identifying consumers' needs. It helps Kellogg's to plan ahead, for example, looking at what products or extensions it should develop and for whom. It focuses the business on the needs of its consumers. An organisation that does this can improve its competitive advantage.

  In an established market, such as breakfast cereals, there is little room to increase the overall sales in the market. Kellogg's is therefore always looking for ways to strengthen its own portfolio. Designing new products is a good way of doing this. However, this can take a long time and may involve considerable costs.

  In addition to the resources required during development, suppliers must produce an advertising campaign to raise awareness of the product among consumers and encourage retailers to stock the product. Launching a new product can be a risky business.

  Qualitative research may be obtained through focus groups, where a moderator captures feedback from a group of six or seven consumers to the ideas shown to them. Those ideas may take the format of drawings or having new food prototypes to taste.

  Quantitative research may use questionnaires administered to large numbers of respondents. This allows statistical analysis, such as the calculation of a mean score or percentages. It aims to give a representative picture of what consumers think of a new product idea or a new (real) food.

  It may involve the use of scales, so numbers get associated with a particular meaning for example, on a evaluation scale of 1 to 7, where 1 means 'very poor' and 7 means 'excellent'. Crucially those numbers need to be interpreted to enable the business to understand the consumer”s overall response.



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