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信息管理与知识管理 KM AND IM comparative analysis

信息管理与知识管理  KM AND IM comparative analysis
 

To discuss the difference between information management (IM) and knowledge management (KM) first asks us to define them.

What is KM?

What is IM?

1 Information management (IM) is an interdisciplinary field which focuses on information as a resource with an emphasis on collection. The material form in which this information occurs includes book, journals, and databases. Practitioners select, describe, classify, index, and abstract this information to make it more accessible to a target audience, either within or outside their organization. In a development context, IM is concerned to provide transparent and standardized access to information both within and outside the organization. IM has been often framed in terms of tools and technologies to store and organize information.

2 Knowledge management makes sense of information in the context of it's users. Practioners summarize, contextualize, value-judge, rank, synthesize, edit and facilitate to make information and knowledge accessible between people, either within or outside their organization. It concerns itself with the social interactions around the sharing and use of knowledge. KM is largely based on tacit interpretation and less on rules. Some question if knowledge can be "managed" at all. KM has often been framed in terms of knowledge in action for an end purpose. KM implies that the most important drivers relate to human behavior and interchange.

Some see IM as a subset of KM. Ironically, KM is often positioned underneath IM (and more often IT) departments, rather than the other way around.


1、 信息管理“信息管理”这个术语自本世纪70年代在国外提出以来,使用频率越来越高。关于“信息管理”的概念,国外也存在多种不同的解释。.人们公认的信息管理概念可以总结如下:信息管理是实观组织目录、满足组织的要求,解决组织的环境问题而对信息资源进行开发、规划、控制、集成、利用的一种战略管理。同时认为信息管理的发展分为三个时期:以图书馆工作为基础的传统管理时期,以信息系统为特征的技术管理时期和以信息资源管理为特征的资源管理时期。

2、 知识管理由于知识管理是管理领域的新生事物,所以目前还没有一个被大家广泛认可的定义。Karl E Sverby从认识论的角度对知识管理进行了定义,认为知识管理是“利用组织的无形资产创造价值的艺术”。日本东京一桥大学著名知识学教授野中郁次郎认为知识分为显性知识和隐性知识,显性知识是已经总结好的被基本接受的正式知识,以数字化形式存在或者可直接数字化,易于传播;隐性知识是尚未从员工头脑中总结出来或者未被基本接受的非正式知识,是基于直觉、主观认识、和信仰的经验性知识。显性知识比较容易共享,但是创新的根本来源是隐性知识。野中郁次郎在此基础上提出了知识创新的SECI模型:其中社会化(Socialization),即通过共享经验产生新的意会性知识的过程;外化(Externalization),即把隐性知识表达出来成为显性知识的过程;组合(Combination),即显性知识组合形成更复杂更系统的显性知识体系的过程;内化(Internalization),即把显性知识转变为隐性知识,成为企业的个人与团体的实际能力的过程。



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